What Is TREPS In Mutual Funds?

Do you want to invest in mutual funds with minimal risk and maximum returns? Have you heard of TREPS in mutual funds?

If you want to invest securely and profitably, understanding TREPS is crucial. This trading mechanism is gaining popularity among mutual fund investors in India due to its unique features and benefits.

So, what exactly is TREPS in mutual funds? Let’s explore and find out more.

Definition of TREPS:

TREPS stands for Tri-Party Repo Trading System. It is a trading mechanism mutual fund investors use to buy and sell securities securely and profitably.

In TREPS, the buyer and seller enter into an agreement where the seller sells securities to the buyer for a short period, and both parties agree to reverse the transaction later.

TREPS involves a third-party intermediary who acts as a guarantor, ensuring the smooth execution of the trade and minimising counterparty risks.

The mechanism is primarily used in debt securities such as government and corporate bonds, providing a convenient way for investors to earn returns on their investments while maintaining security.

Types of TREPS In Mutual Funds:

There are two types of TREPS in mutual funds:

  • Repo TREPS
  • Reverse Repo TREPS


The mutual fund investor buys securities from another investor, such as a bank or a financial institution, agreeing to sell them back at a predetermined price and date.

The buyer gets cash by selling the securities, and the seller receives a return by lending the securities.

Reverse Repo TREPS:

The mutual fund investor sells securities to another investor with an agreement to buy them back at a predetermined price and date.

The seller gets cash by lending the securities, and the buyer earns a return by holding them until the agreed-upon repurchase date.

Collateralised Borrowing and Lending Obligations (CBLO):

CBLO is a secure money market instrument for short-term borrowing and lending between banks and financial institutions. It involves pledging securities as collateral for borrowed funds, reducing credit risk.

The interest rate on CBLO is market-driven, regulated by the RBI, and can be traded on CCIL. CBLOs are a popular option in India due to their simplicity, transparency, and low risk for investors seeking short-term liquidity.

Repurchase Agreements (Repo):

Repurchase agreements, or Repo, are financial transactions where one party sells securities to another party and agrees to buy them back later at a slightly higher price.

The difference between the selling price and the repurchase price represents the interest earned by the lender.

Repos are typically used for short-term borrowing and lending of funds, and the securities being sold serve as collateral. This makes repos a low-risk investment option.

The market’s demand and supply of funds determine the interest rate on a repo. Repos are commonly used in the money markets to manage liquidity and are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

Commercial Papers (CP):

Commercial Papers (CP) are unsecured short-term debt instruments companies use to raise funds for their working capital requirements. They are traded in the secondary market and are typically issued by companies with good credit ratings.

The Reserve Bank of India regulates CPs and has set certain guidelines for issuing them.

Investing in CPs can provide higher returns but carries some risk due to changes in the creditworthiness of the issuing company.

Purpose of TREPS In Mutual Funds:

The purpose of TREPS in mutual funds is to provide a platform for short-term borrowing and lending of funds between mutual fund schemes and other financial institutions.

It enables mutual fund schemes to meet their short-term liquidity requirements by borrowing funds at a lower cost, while financial institutions can earn returns on their surplus funds by lending to mutual fund schemes.

TREPS also helps in efficient cash management and helps reduce credit risk for mutual fund schemes.

Short Term Financing:

Short-term financing refers to borrowing money or obtaining funds for a relatively brief period, usually up to one year.

This type of financing is often used to cover working capital requirements or to address cash flow gaps. Short-term financing options include bank loans, lines of credit, trade credit, factoring, commercial paper, and other money market instruments.

Short-term financing can be an effective way for businesses to meet their immediate funding needs. Still, it typically comes with higher interest rates and requires careful management to avoid burdening the company’s financial health.

Generating Returns:

Generating returns means earning profits or income on an investment. In mutual funds, investing aims to generate returns on the invested money.

Returns can be in dividends, interest, or capital gains. The goal of generating returns is to grow the value of the investment over time and achieve financial goals.

Mutual funds offer various investment options with different levels of risk and potential returns, allowing investors to choose an investment strategy that aligns with their financial goals and risk tolerance.

Why do Mutual Funds Invest in TREPS?

Mutual funds invest in tri-party repurchase agreements (TREPS) because they offer a relatively safe and short-term investment option with higher yields compared to traditional cash investments like bank deposits.

TREPs also provide liquidity management benefits, allowing mutual funds to optimize their cash positions while earning a return on idle funds.

Risks Associated with TREPS In Mutual Funds:

Investors should be aware of certain risks associated with investing in TREPS in mutual funds.

One major risk is the credit risk of the counterparty. which refers to the risk of the other party defaulting on the transaction. This can result in a loss of principal or interest for the investor.

Another risk is the interest rate risk, which refers to the risk of fluctuations in interest rates affecting the value of the TREPS investment.

If interest rates rise, the value of the investment may decrease, resulting in a loss for the investor.

Additionally, liquidity risk is associated with TREPS investments, as it may be difficult to sell the investment quickly if needed. This can be a concern if the investor requires the funds urgently.

Finally, market risks, such as overall market fluctuations or government policy changes, can also impact the value of TREPS investments.

It is important for investors to carefully assess these risks before investing in TREPS in mutual funds.

Counterparty Risk:

Counterparty risk refers to the risk that one party in a financial transaction may default or fail to fulfill its obligations under the terms of the agreement.

In the case of TREPS in mutual funds, this refers to the risk that the counterparty, a bank or financial institution, may not be able to fulfill its obligations to repay the borrowed funds or return the securities used as collateral. This can result in losses for the investor or the mutual fund.

Therefore, it is important to carefully assess the creditworthiness and reputation of the counterparty before entering into a TREPS transaction.

Interest Rate Risk:

Interest rate risk refers to the risk that the value of an investment will decline due to changes in interest rates. It affects both the borrower and the lender in a financial transaction.

If interest rates rise, the value of the investment may decrease because other investments with higher rates of return become more attractive.

On the other hand, if interest rates fall, the value of the investment may increase, but the investor may be locked into a lower rate of return. Therefore, interest rate risk is significant when investing in any financial instrument.

Liquidity Risk:

Liquidity risk is when an investment cannot be easily sold or converted into cash quickly enough to meet its financial obligations.

The risk arises when an investor wants to sell an investment, but there are no buyers available in the market, or if the investor has to sell at a price lower than the investment’s fair value.

In the case of TREPS in mutual funds, liquidity risk may arise if the market conditions change rapidly, causing the value of the securities used as collateral to decrease, making it difficult for the counterparty to fulfill its obligation to repurchase the securities at the agreed price.

Market Risk:

Market risk is the risk of financial loss due to changes in market conditions, such as fluctuations in market prices or interest rates.

It can affect the value of investments in various asset classes, including stocks, bonds, and mutual funds.

Various factors, including economic conditions, geopolitical events, and changes in investor sentiment, can cause market risk.

The risk can be mitigated by diversifying investments across different asset classes and regularly monitoring market conditions.


TREPS can be useful for mutual funds to generate returns and manage short-term financing needs.

However, investors should know the associated risks, such as counterparty, interest rate, liquidity, and market risks.

By understanding these risks, investors can make informed decisions and effectively incorporate TREPS into their investment strategy.


  • Can individuals invest in TREPS in Mutual Funds?

    Yes, individuals can invest in TREPS in mutual funds. However, it is important to consider the risks of these instruments carefully and consult a financial advisor before investing.

  • How is the interest rate on TREPS determined?

    The interest rate on TREPS is determined by the demand and supply of funds in the market. It can fluctuate based on inflation, interest rates, and market conditions.

  • What is the minimum amount required to invest in TREPS?

    The minimum investment amount for TREPS varies based on the mutual fund scheme and the terms of the transaction. Generally, it ranges from Rs. 5 lakhs to Rs. 1 crore.

  • What is Tri-Party Repo in Mutual Fund?

    A tri-party repo in a mutual fund context refers to a repurchase agreement where a third party, typically a clearing bank, acts as an intermediary between the borrower and lender.

    In this arrangement, the clearing bank facilitates the transaction by handling collateral management and settlement, providing added security and efficiency to the mutual fund’s repo transactions.