Difference between IPO and FPO

Difference between IPO and FPO

Have you ever wondered what drives the gradually growing banking industry to such massive heights? This is the exciting world of follow on public offerings (FPOs) and initial public offerings (IPOs). 

Though these phrases lie throughout the stock market’s concepts, what sets them apart? Let’s enter into this article to discover the difference between IPO and FPO, which have the potential to completely change the way you see the world of finance.

What is an IPO?

The first time a privately owned firm makes its shares available to the general public is through an IPO. Through this procedure, the business can raise money by offering investors ownership holdings. Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) are noteworthy occasions that draw interest from both experienced investors and the wider audience.

Different Types of IPO:

Fixed Price IPO:

The Fixed Price IPO gives investors in the exciting world of finance one more reason to be excited about their journey. Imagine if a firm full of promise decides to boldly set a price for its shares. The attraction stems from the clarity it offers investors, who can grasp the precise amount that will serve as their pass to possible gains.

The issuing business controls the action in this thrilling scenario, setting a price that serves as an entry point for interested investors. This decisive approach promotes willingness and streamlines the investment process, enabling investors to easily align their expectations.

Feel the real excitement in the air as investors confidently enter the world of potential, eager to engage in a good enterprise, armed with this accurate pricing information. With its simplicity and clarity, the Fixed Price IPO turns the financial world into a playground of reasonable risks and indisputable rewards, where every investor becomes an eager seeker of financial wealth.

Book Building IPO:

A price range is specified, allowing investors to participate in an exciting bidding war for shares within that predefined spectrum, and the heart pounding spectacle of a Book Building IPO achieves its peak of excitement.

Like a high stakes auction, where players compete fervently for a cut of the money. Excitement mounts as bidders, their moves impacting the fine balance between supply and demand as they skillfully place their offers.

The last price surprise is the peak, though, which is still to come. The suspense builds to a crescendo as the final amount is revealed—not at random, but carefully chosen by the combined power of investor demand during this intense bidding process.

A dynamic confluence of market forces, it’s a symphony of financial machinations that reverberates through the investment halls as the winning bid becomes the decisive note. The result is more than simply a figure; it’s a representation of investor confidence, market mood, and the overall financial zeitgeist, all of which are captured in the final price that determines the course of shares in the Book Building IPO market. 

Dutch Auction IPO:

A Dutch Auction IPO is comparable to an exciting auction when investors are in control of the thrilling world of finance. Imagine investors passionately announcing the amount they are willing to pay and excitedly bidding for the number of shares they demand. The stakes are great in this exciting dance, and the tension rises with each bid.

There is no fixed final price in this unusual auction-style initial public offering. Rather, it’s a dynamic process in which priority is given to the highest bids. An atmosphere of expectation is created as the auction progresses and the excitement increases. Investors compete to acquire the shares they want at a price that corresponds to their valuation in a financial battle that showcases their strategic acumen.

What is an FPO?

A Follow On Public Offering (FPO) occurs when a company that is already publicly traded issues additional shares to the public. FPOs are a way for companies to raise more capital without going through an initial public offering.

Different Types of FPO:

Dilutive FPO:

Examining the financial playbook in detail, we come across the interesting tactic known as Weakening Follow On Public Offerings (FPOs). Get ready as we reveal the exciting workings of this money move. Within the thrilling world of Dilutive FPOs, businesses perform a strategic ballet by releasing a mass of new shares onto the market.

What is the outcome? An exciting ballet of ownership proportions, in which current shareholders watch as their interests are progressively diluted. Comparable to a high-stakes game of poker, the corporation changes the ownership deck by adding new shares to the mix.

Companies looking for more funding to support their goals turn to this financial circus as their go-to option. Imagine it as a bold step onto the financial scene, a measured risk made to obtain the capital required for growth, innovation, or maybe even a foray into unknown waters.

Reducing FPOs is the highlight act in the financial theater, as corporations demonstrate their faith in the market’s demand for their shares while deftly striking a balance between financial growth and dilution.

Non Dilutive FPO:

The stock market is a complex dance, and non dilutive Follow On Public Offerings (FPOs) are one interesting twist in the dance. Non dilutive FPOs, in contrast to their weakening cousins, break from the standard to produce an exciting spectacle. In this instance, the business makes a calculated step to demonstrate its strength without issuing further shares. 

Rather, the focus shifts to the current stakeholders—major investors and promoters, for example—who take center stage with grace. Imagine this as an exciting encore in which the company’s current shares, owned by influential people, take center stage in this financial show. This show keeps the market audience interested while also keeping ownership percentages in check, which keeps the complex dance of the company’s capital structure alive. 

Difference between IPO vs FPO:

Understanding the distinctions between IPOs and FPOs is crucial for investors. While IPOs mark the entrance of a company into the stock market, FPOs are subsequent offerings by already listed companies.

FeatureIPO (Initial Public Offering)FPO (Follow-on Public Offering)
MeaningFirst time a company sells its shares to the public.Subsequent sale of additional shares by a company already listed on the stock exchange.
PurposeRaise capital for growth and expansion.Raise additional capital for various purposes (e.g., debt repayment, expansion, acquisitions)
TimingThe first time the company has gone public.After the company is already listed on a stock exchange.
Share capital impactIncreases share capital.May or may not increase share capital (depending on the seller)
Price determinationFixed or variable within a range.Market-driven, based on existing share price.
Information availableLimited information available (prospectus)Market-driven, based on the existing share price.
Market-driven, based on the existing share price.Higher (company’s future is unknown)Lower (company’s track record available)
Potential returnsPotentially higher (investing in early growth stage)Potentially lower (company may be in a mature stage)
Risk for InvestorsGeneral public.Existing shareholders and/or new investors.


To sum up, initial public offerings (IPOs) and foreign direct investments (FPOs) are essential components of the financial system that offer firms a means of obtaining funding and investors a chance to be involved in the expansion of a business.

Making wise investing selections requires knowing the distinctions between FPOs and IPOs. Knowing these financial mechanics gives investors the ability to effectively manage the complexity of the stock market as it continues to evolve.


How do the risk profiles of IPO and FPO differ for investors?

FPOs profit from the stability of already listed companies and the established market knowledge, whereas IPOs face greater market entry uncertainty and volatility.

When evaluating these offerings, investors should take their risk tolerance into account, perform due research, and keep up with market developments.